The content of the article
The most reliable way to check network security is to try to crack it. Wi-Fi audit guides have been published at Hacker more than once, but such guides quickly become obsolete. The only way to update them is to go all the way again on your own and share fresh experience. That is what I tried to do.
What is needed to audit wireless networks?
Universal gentleman's kit: a laptop with Linux and a Wi-Fi adapter with a USB interface (they are also called dongles). You can use a smartphone, but for some attacks, a second USB port is corny. Even a laptop without an installed OS and no drive at all is suitable.
All information is provided for educational purposes only. Neither the editors nor the author are responsible for any possible harm caused by the materials in this article.
What OS to take for wardriving?
Linux allows you to finely control devices (in particular, dongles) through open source drivers. Almost any distribution is suitable, but it is more convenient to use the finished assembly. For instance, Blackarch, Backbox, Parrot security, Kali Linux.
The most popular are Kali Linux builds, in which not only sets of hacking utilities are already integrated, but also the drivers of most potentially suitable chips for wardriving, plus small tweaks were originally made.
There is a lot of rethought in recent Kali releases. Now it can mimic externally under Windows (so that you are not burned up, seeing a strange thing on the monitor), the root is disabled by default (either turn it on or write
sudo to teams requiring superuser privileges). Most importantly, Kali now immediately supports new 802.11ac dongles and it is extremely simple to increase the power of the Wi-Fi adapter.
How to use Linux on a laptop without demolishing Windows?
The developers do not recommend installing Kali on the hard drive, although technically the option with multi-boot is fully implemented through the same Grub. It’s just that the boundaries of legal actions during the audit are very blurred, and for your safety, it’s better to use Live Persistence mode. Work in it will hardly differ from work in the installed OS. All updates, configs, new scripts and your personal files will be picked up the next time you reboot in Persistence mode. For greater privacy, it can be encrypted.
In my opinion, a memory card is more convenient than a flash drive, since it does not occupy a USB port and does not stick out at hand. Ports (especially with separate power supplies) are always in short supply on laptops. Take a card with at least Class 10 marking (the declared linear recording speed is 10 MB / s), or better, the UHS-I V30 and faster (if the built-in card reader supports it).
How to make bootable flash drive with Kali and Persistence partition?
To do this, create two partitions on a USB Flash or SD card. One will be FAT32 to run the OS – it is unpacked image from kali.org. The second section is ext3 for saving settings, own files and session changes.
Windows does not know how to work with flash drives that have more than one partition, and does not support ext3. However, in it such markup is elementarily done by a free utility Rufus. The main thing is to run the regular version (not portable).
Which Wi-Fi adapter is suitable for wardriving?
In general, it is able to switch to monitoring mode (required) and inject network packets (preferably). Whether it is it or not depends on the chip on which the adapter is built, and its driver. A universal technique for selecting suitable dongles is described in this article. In fact, it is relevant now, but the site wikidevi.com has long been, so instead we use kernel.org.
This site has a Wi-Fi driver table for Linux. We are not interested in everything, but only those for which yes is indicated in the monitor column, N or AC is indicated in the next column (PHY modes) (a guarantee that relatively new standards are used), and in the Bus column is USB.
Additional driver information can be obtained from two plates in the English-language wiki. The principle is the same – we are looking for a combination of parameters: 802.11n (ac) + monitor mode + USB.
At the time of writing (January 2020), the following drivers were in the bottom line: ath9k_htc, carl9170, mt76, mt7601u, p54, rt2800usb, rt2x00, rtl8187, rtl8192cu, zd1211, zd1211rw.
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